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Oil Industry

Before the discovery, the natives used the raw petroleum that I/you/they were offered in the numerous superficial manifestations that exist in the whole territory to the north of the river Orinoco discreetly. The word mene was introduced by them in the Castilian vocabulary and today it is still applied to the rezumaderos; they used the raw petroleum as impermeabilizador, mortar, iluminante and medicinal product; as the heat of the tropical sun it softened the surface of the menes, some very extensive ones, in those natural traps hunted the animals that dared to the danger. In some regions, the natives extended blankets on the iridescent movies that were formed in the surface of streams and rivers, and once impregnated the they squeezed to pick up the light fractions of the oil. The menes was later I object of the admiration of the conquerors; of the natives they learned how to use the substance to caulk naos, to prepare their weapons and to illuminate. The French buccaneers and Englishmen that razed the sea Caribbean against the Spanish Crown, repaired their ships with the raw petroleum and the natural asphalt of the menes that skirt the lake of Maracaibo. The first reference in the universal literature to the petroleum raw Venezuelan is of September of 1535 and  appeared in the natural and general History of the India, islands and mainland of the Mar Océano for the first columnist of the New World captain Gonzalo Fernández of Oviedo and Valdés. The not authenticated information of Oviedo referred to the existence of a spring in the tip west of the island of Cubagua, of which sprouts a liquor like oil next to the sea in so much way that runs for her above the water making sign more than 2 or 3 leagues of the island, and  still gives scent of yes this liquor"; the reference finished, with the declaration that ...algunos of those that have seen it says to be called by the natural Stercus demonis and that it is utilísimo in medicine... The second edition of the work of Oviedo and Valdés, 1547 in Salamanca, repeated the original text exactly. This same they make with posteriority the historians from Indias López of Gómara (1552, Zaragoza), Castellanos (1589, Madrid), Herrera (1601, Madrid) and Gumilla (1741, Madrid), as well as Ramusio (Raccolta, 1556, Venice) and Purchas (Pilgrimages, 1625, London). exact Mention on the petroleum in the basin of Maracaibo made Oviedo and Valdés in the second part of its History (1540, Seville). June 15 1579 the mayors Gaspar of Párraga and Rodrigo of Argüelles informed on a remarkable rezumadero of raw petroleum near New Zamora (Maracaibo). September of 1536, 3 the Queen from Spain had ordered from Valladolid that owed enviársele of the oil petroleum in all the ships that left of Cubagua", to alleviate her son's Carlos V. drop The first shipment proven documentalmente you/he/she weighed anchor April 30 1539; October 31, the cask left the House of Recruiting of Seville for Madrid, under the custody of a muleteer. This would be the first export of petroleum raw Venezuelan. December of 1551, 17 for real declaration,  settled down that, the same as the Spaniards, the natives could discover and to work mines, but the Ordinances of Valladolid of Felipe II (1559) they annulled those rights, incorporating the mines to the real patrimony. All the concerning one to mining was recast by Felipe II in the Ordinances of San Lorenzo of August 22 1584; the Laws of India (1602) they authorized the governors to apply them in all the colonies. May of 1680, 18 Carlos II in the Summary of India included references to all the previous dispositions and it ordered them to apply in America. May of 1783, 28 Carlos III dictated in Aranjuez the mining Ordinances for the New Spain whose disposition 22 of the title sixth specified Juices of the earth". These ordinances were applied to the Intendency of Venezuela April 27 1784 for real resolution and real identification. 
In the first years of the XIX century, 4 European naturalists visited Venezuela, and in their trip relationships they referred from different ways to the Venezuelan petroleum. Alejandro of Humboldt (who had arrived July 16 1799 with Aimé Bonpland to Cumaná) it related the occurrences of hydrocarbons with the causes that produce earthquakes and eruptions of lava in the northern part of the America of the South; Humboldt described the ways used by the native ones that live near the rezumaderos to take advantage of the pitch and the asphalt, and  prepared the first list of natural deposits of asphalt and thermal sources in the coastal area that extends from Trinidad to Maracaibo. François Depons (1806)  mentioned some rezumaderos of petroleum to the northeast of the lake of Maracaibo, near to a town that erroneously  called Ore and it reached the curious conclusion that the vapors that there are emitted they are the cause of the lightning of the Catatumbo (that called lantern of Maracaibo"). Another French, J.J. Dauxion Lavaysse, referred shortly (1813) to rezumaderos of petroleum that  observed near Cumaná and Barcelona in its journeys for Venezuela (c. 1805 and 1807-1808). In 1825, samples of light petroleum of a rezumadero located between Escuque and Betijoque correspondents went to the United Kingdom, France and United States; the product called himself " colombio " and it was sold commercially in the region by some years. October of 1829, 24 the Liberator dictated in I Remove the Regulation on Mines reiterating the national property on the mines of any class", in accordance with the conditions expressed in the laws and in the Ordinances of 1783. The Congress of the Republic ratified the ordinance of Bolivar April 29 1830 and it accepted its applicability to the new Republic. October of 1839, 3 José María Vargas informed for letter to the secretary of State of the Office of Treasury and External Relationships on the analyses that made to a sample of petroleum that you/they sent him of the place of Flints, canton of the Bajo Orinoco; Vargas referred in general to the existence of hydrocarbons in Venezuelan territory and to the fact that already had ...una bottle of this petroleum taken out in the county of Trujillo..."; with extraordinary vision, it proposed that ...convendría a lot to excite the gentleman Governor of Guayana... to that continued the investigations to determine the extension, it forms and depth of the deposit, daring to say that the State could lease the exploitation of the mine. The German naturalists dominated the impulse to the knowledge of the Venezuelan petroleum, with their meticulous and exact geographical and geologic descriptions, during the second half of the XIX century. Hermann Karsten published (1850) the first summary of the geology of central and oriental Venezuela, in the Bulletin of the German Geologic Society; the following year,  informed on a rezumadero of petroleum located between Escuque and Betijoque and from Barranquilla (1852) on the abundant rezumaderos of petroleum in many places for the whole contour of the lake of Maracaibo. During the same year, L. von Buch published in the Magazine of the Geologic Society of Berlin the first Venezuelan fossil that  appeared in effigy in the universal literature, the Ammonites tocuyensis. In their report before the Geologic Society of London October of 1860, 24 G.P. Wall referred to very extended deposits of pitch in Maturín ...y's county in even more quantities near the Gulf of Maracaybo, as well as to the near volcanos of mud to Maturín..."; in the map that accompanied the report, effective today in day, Wall it showed the corresponding locations. They contributed with determination to the knowledge of the wealth in raw petroleum of the Venezuelan underground Red Arístides in The National Opinion (1869) and in a book about the geography of Venezuela (1870), and inform in the Bulletin of the Ministry of Development (1873), Adolfo Ernst's works, Miguel will Knit in his book picturesque and cultured Venezuela (1875, Paris), the engineer and general Wenceslao Briceño-Méndez Camejo, Wilhelm Sievers in lucid reports, Ch. Bullman, E. Fortín, H. Eggers and C. Richardson. 
Among so much, the first asphalt concessions and August 24 1865 were given the first of raw petroleum. Jorge Sutherland, general in boss of the Armies of the Union and constitutional president of the sovereign state of the Zulia", it celebrated contract with the North American citizen Camilo Ferrand for which granted ...el right and exclusive privilege in the state Zulia of drilling, to take out and to export petroleum or naphtha, or I lower any other denomination that the oil is known that exists in the earth for the 10 year-old term in reason of being this an unknown industry in the country, being able to increase this lapse, if this way conviniere to the interests of both parts..."; Ferrand lost the privilege before one year for not having been able to fulfill its work commitments. February of 1866, 2 the Asamblea Legislativa of the state of New Andalusia (today Sucre and Monagas) it granted a concession to Manuel Olavarría to exploit petroleum in the whole state for 20 years and December of 1866, 19 the Constitutional Assembly of the state Trujillo it granted Pascual Casanova an oil concession for 20 years, for the exploitation of the mines of the canton of Escuque, by means of the canon of lease of 20 annual pesos. September of 1878, 3 Manuel Polished Antonio obtained of the government of the Great State of you Walk them the exclusive rights to exploit a globe of terrestrial mineralógico of 100 there is, to 15 km to San Cristobal's Southwest; the concession was denominated A hundred Mines of Asphalt; October 12, Refined and J.A. it Crippled, Ramón M. Maldonado, Carlos González Bona, José G. Villafañe son and Pedro Rafael Rincones, they registered the society contract that established the first oil company, Petrolia. Before one year, Corners traveled to Pennsylvania to study the oil industry and to buy team; the perforation drill to percussion arrived to it Tars It, the field exploded by Petrolia, after months of difficult transfer; during April of 1883, Petrolia Eureka, its first producing well completed. In total, Petrolia completed 14 wells, of those which at least the half was producing; at the own time, it built in it Tars It a primitive unit of distillation of about 2.000 daily liters of capacity. Petrolia was the first company that exploited the Venezuelan petroleum; today we would call it an integrated company: it explored, it perforated, it refined and  sold their products in the local market, it even exported kerosene and others derived to Cúcuta and neighboring regions. Petrolia trained its personnel, sending them to the exterior (in United State, the oil industry hardly arrived at the century room). it was a company highly national and, inside the technology of the time, successful in its operations. After the constitution of Petrolia, the rhythm of the grant of concessions left increasing gradually. In 1884, Sixto González received titles to exploit petroleum and other minerals in Guárico; Thin Manuel Cadenas for petroleum and ozoquerita in Betijoque and Escuque; Manuel Hernández López for the asphalts and petroleums that exist in the peninsula of Paraguaná; José Andrade for petroleum and asphalt in Zulia, and Cristóforo Dacovich to explode and to refine petroleum in Falcon and you Walk them. January of 1888, 20 the minister of Development hired with Aníbal Domínici the exclusive right of to explode and to refine petroleum in the national territory. Graham Co. of Trinidad (1890) it completed several not very deep wells in The Pitch, near Flints that produced heavy petroleum; a small refinery was built, but before the new century  gave way the project. The activities, like it is natural, they concentrated first on the development and commercialization of the big asphalt deposits. The English company Val of Travers began to explode in 1900 the locations of the area of Flints and the New York and Bermudez the lake of Guanoco in 1901. 
President Cipriano Castro promulgated, August of 1905, 14 the Régime of the Law of Mines, juridical instrument of transcendency, because you/he/she will constitute the legal base of the first really important concessions for the evolution of the oil industry; nevertheless, the Law of Mines of 1905 only referred to the asphalt mines, naphtha, petroleum, polish, ozoquerita or wax mineral in 3 articles of the XIV section; an annual tax of Bs settled down in them. 2 for there is of surface of the concession, more a bonus of Bs. 4 for exported ton; the duration of the rights was for a 50 year-old lapse and the exploitation should begin in the 4 following years to the grant of the title; the regulation of the law was dictated February 23 1906. In 1907 it began the cycle of grant of concessions that with running of the years, and by reason of the rich oil locations that contained, they would become remarkable inside the historical recount of the industry. January 31, Andrés Jorge Vigas received a concession in the area of River of Gold, later on passed over to the Colon Development (Shell); February 28, Antonio Aranguren received 1.000.000 it is necessary to exploit asphalt in the districts Bolivar and Maracaibo of the state Zulia, extended to oil locations June 18 1912; March 18, to Francisco Jiménez Arráiz were granted a concession of 500.000 there are in the districts Acosta and Zamora of the state Falcon and Silva of the state Lara, modified July 3 to include the exploration of petroleum; and July 22, the general Bernabé Planas received 1.000.000 it is necessary to exploit petroleum, asphalt and other substances in the district Buchivacoa of the state Falcon. December of 1910, 10 were granted a concession to John Allen Tregelles and N.G. Burch that contained a provision according to the one which, for the first time, the refinement was promoted in the country of the produced petroleum, as well as a stipulation that allowed the expropriation of the necessary areas for the works of exploitation. Although in July of 1911 the Venezuela Oil Fields Exploration completed a well of 100 m of depth in Manicuare, near Cumaná, the concession Tregelles revertió to the Nation at the end of the 2 years of the exploratory period, December of 1911, 10 but January of 1912, 2 Rafael Max Valladares received the same ones practically 27.000.000 there is; the following day, Fences requested permission to the minister of Development to pass over their concession and, January 4, it was already transferred the Caribbean Petroleum (Shell). In September of 1911, the geologist Ralph Arnold began, together with their associates, what themselves with justeza has called the first great hunt for the Venezuelan petroleum; during a year of intense work, traveling great part of the country under really difficult conditions, the investigators completed the first harmonic group vision of the geology of Venezuela; for November of 1912, 27 the Caribbean received in its offices the preliminary report, where the selection of 87 lots of 500 was recommended there is in what is today oil area of Monagas, Anzoátegui, Falcon and Zulia, as well as others in Sucre, New Esparta and Trujillo; in particular, Arnold proposed the immediate perforation of the well Sumac, near Big Mene. To the expiration of the exploratory period of the concession of the Caribbean, for recommendations of Arnold, the company requested 1.028 lots of exploitation with a total surface of 512.000 there is, mainly around the prominent rezumaderos of petroleum. August 15 1913 the New York and Bermudez discovered the field Guanoco, with the successful completación of the well Bababui. April of 1914, 15 the Caribbean, with the second discovery, made advance with stability to Venezuela to the panorama of the international industry of the petroleum; Sumac 1, now MG-1,  discovered the gigantic field of Big Mene, 120 km to the southeast of Maracaibo. Between 1914 and 1916, they were discovered small accumulations in Totumo, River of Gold and Tarra. In January of 1917 they entered in operation 2 parallel lines of 15 km of longitude and 20 cm of diameter of the field from Big Mene to San Lorenzo's terminal, on the oriental riverside of the lake of Maracaibo; the first operations of the refinery, one of the most modern of their time, they were carried out August 17; the first export of petroleum from San Lorenzo's terminal was in September. December of 1917, 13 without being able to realize that one of the biggest deposits of raw petroleum in the world, the Venezuelan Oil Concessions was being discovered (Shell) it completed the exploratory well successfully Santa Bárbara 1, now R-2. June 27 1918 were promulgated the twelfth and last applicable Law of Mines to the oil industry; it was declared that the grant of a new concession doesn't confer the property of the deposits that you/they were discovered, but only the right to exploit the substances; 4 articles tried with exclusivity of the petroleum, incorporating minister's Gumersindo Torres ideas; for the first time reference was made to measures of conservation of the discovered locations. The year  closed with something extraordinary: the petroleum appeared in the statistics of export of Venezuela with 21.194 tm, sized in Bs. 900.000. 
For 1919 and particularly during 1920, the rivalry between the British oil interests and the North Americans became worse, culminating when it was achieved with the agreement of San Oar (April 1920) the division between Great Britain and France of the Arab territories of  Gets up; United States had been excluded of the conversations. The North American companies that looked for oil rights in Venezuela received the whole support of president Woodrow Wilson's administration. The prices of the raw petroleum, in 1920, triplicated those of 1913. The Legation of United States in Caracas offered the whole help possible to the North American oil tankers. Amid the intense competition among so powerful financial interests, minister Torres achieved that the National Congress approves, June of 1920, 19 the first law has more than enough hydrocarbons that it increased the superficial rents, it allowed the particular proprietors to obtain concessions in its lands, it diminished the size of the concessions, it increased the area of national reservations, it reduced the list of articles of free import greatly and it consecrated the reversion principle from the industrial facilities to the State, at the end of the term of the duration of the concession. For December of 1920, 31 from 1878, they were in Venezuela, properly documented, 1.312 concession contracts for exploitation and development of oil fields, 835 of those which referred to the state Zulia. With everything it, hardly 7 oil fields (8 counting The it Tars) they had been discovered, 6 in the basin of Maracaibo, and Guanoco in that of Maturín. That is to say, the properly this oil activities went ahead without espectacularidad, to the measure that the underground responded every time with more promises; the companies waited a more favorable legal instrument for a quicker development of the industry. June of 1921, 2 the National Congress promulgated a new Law of Hydrocarbons that revertió the terms of that of 1920. The oil activity was intensified significantly, beginning the maneuvers of the concesionarias before Juan Vicente Gómez to win or to consolidate positions. The Law of Hydrocarbons of June 9 1922 liberalized even more the régime concessionaire. December 14 1922 the well The Muddy núm. 2, near Cabimas in the oriental coast of the lake of Maracaibo, it exploded violently from a depth of 500 m, flowing without control to reason of 16.000 m3 newspapers. When they crumbled the walls and the oil sands December 23 were sealed, the world had received the impact of the revelation of an extraordinary wealth. Inevitably, with the accelerated entrance of many new interested international groups, a stage of licentiousness was raised to acquire lands, holding and position, in the most expedite way. June of 1923, 22 settled down in Caracas a Venezuelan Company of the Petroleum for the disposition of the national reservations. For contrast, July 25 began the perforation of the first well inside the own lake of Maracaibo, a kilometer to the east of The Muddy ones 2, to 2 m of the riverside and in waters of a meter deep. The apparent apathy for the purchase of concessions for transfer was able to be overcome when the own Gómez encouraged the interests of a German financial group, directed by Hugo Stinnes, in the intent of purchase of a fourth part of the Company of the Petroleum; the initiative of the 5 filial operators of the Standard Oil (New Jersey) it caused the successive entrance of the most varied North American groups, with what the prevalence monopólico of the English companies was broken; during June of 1924, the first shipment of raw petroleum of a company of United States was exported. During 1925, it was experienced in the savannas of the east of the country a method novísimo of rising gravimétrico by means of the torsion scale; they began to be published reports on the oil geology of the north of Venezuela, the correlation of the formations of the underground and the development of the fields, culminating with Ralph Liddle's book in 1928. June of that year 3, nobody seemed to hear the first complaint of the inhabitants of The Cañada, to the south of Maracaibo, for the contamination with petroleum of the waters of the lake. The area of Ambrosio of the coastal field of Bolivar, to The Rosa's north, opened up with the termination of the well Rodríguez núm. 2, while the blowouts and fires continued in The Rosa or the Mene of Mauroa. In July, in spite of not having unions neither formal organization, a margariteño stoker of the Venezuelan Oil Concessions directed such a singular strike that Gómez was forced to send troops to reestablish the peace, to achieve the union and to make return to the work. After 15 years of exploratory effort in the basin of Maturín and the poor person rewards of a field that produced a raw one so heavy that I/you/he/she seemed better to mine similar substance of the lake of Guanoco, June 1 1928 the well exploratory Moneb núm. 1 discovered an immense accumulation in the piedemonte of the oriental mountain range, near Quiriquire. The center of gravity of the industry didn't move of course from the surrounding region to the lake of Maracaibo, but the discovery definitively imposed new perspectives for the future. In the lapse of few months, a law of surveillance was promulgated to impede the contamination of the waters for the petroleum, a smaller reformation was sanctioned to the Law of Hydrocarbons, the first Law of the Work was promulgated and you began to mount the wells of the lake it has more than enough wooden foundations and I sum up in depths of up to 15 m. March of 1929, 5 one ran in a well of the area of The Rosa of the coastal field Bolivar, the first profile electric fact in the country. September of 1929, 16 Gumersindo Torres took charge of the Ministry of Development again. In spite of the obstacles of the own Law of Hydrocarbons, it was imposed a control régime and supervision of the oil operations slowly, from the exploration until the export. Nevertheless the unfavorable incidence of the events of the world market, during the year 1930 was possible to give a definitive overturn to the situation, with measures so dissimilar as the determination of the special advantages for the Nation as regards taxes, the spacing between the wells or the medical attention in the hospitals of the companies. July 16 the minister Toasts creó the Technical Service of Hydrocarbons, August 7 were promulgated the Regulation of the Law of Hydrocarbons and November 24 he decided the shipment of the first Venezuelan engineers that you/they would study in the exterior the theory and the practice of the oil operations. In 1931,  was discovered the field of Cumarebo and the first well was perforated in the basin of Barinas. June of 1932, 1 the accumulated production of raw petroleum surpassed the 100.000.000 of m3. During the year 1933,  registered the beginning of oil operations beyond the simple production, by means of operations of injection of natural gas to the locations, for the maintenance of the pressures, while it became notorious the local influence of any government measure of the type of voluntary restrictions of the imports in the main market, United States. January of 1936, 7 were completed The Canoe núm. 1, first well perforated through an extensive strip of accumulations of extra heavy raw petroleum and natural bitumen to the north of the river Orinoco. 
The oil industry was developed firmly during the years that continued to the death of the general Gómez, standing out the performance of Néstor Luis Pérez in the Ministry of Development. In December of 1936 a strike of oil workers exploded that ended for the president's Eleazar López Contreras of January 22 1937 ordinance. February 15 opened up in Caracas the I Congress Geologic Venezuelan. September of 1936, 15 the well TT-1 discovered the group fields of Shaker; November of 1936, 7 Santa Ana 1 discovered the group fields of Anaco and April of 1937, 14 Merey 1 she discovered the group of fields of Office; October of 1938, 13 were achieved the discovery of the first field in the group of Jusepín. In 1936, the population of The Tiger was born (Edo. Anzoátegui) and July of 1939, 9 that of Ciudad Ojeda (Edo. Zulia). August 27 1938 president Eleazar López Contreras inaugurated the Institute of Geology. During 1939, the palinología (pollen and spores) it was used for the first time in the oil exploration,  was discovered fruitful production in the deepest silts in the Eoceno in the coastal field of Bolivar (7.10.1939) and you began the study for the installation of a national refinery near Barcelona. The Second World War caused problems in the operations and a decrease of the production; anyway, president Isaías Medina Angarita promoted the promulgation March 13 1943 of a modern and appropriate law of hydrocarbons that you/he/she was in a mutually beneficial agreement at the end: the Government received a fiscal participation notably increased in exchange for assuring 40 additional years of duration to the concessions and of granting extensive new areas; Medina established the General Administration of the Tax on the Rent (16.3.1943). May of 1944, 3 with the termination of the exploratory one of deeper locations P-62,  was discovered in the field The Peace the productive potentiality of the rocks of the cretáceo; in October it began to work the School of Engineering of Petroleums of the Central University of Venezuela; when closing the cycle concessionaire, it was increased in 6.500.000 there is the given surface. December of 1945, 31 Government's Revolutionary Meeting decreed an extraordinary tax about the benefits of the oil companies. The petroleum stopped to be field activity and forbidden operation. June 14 1946 were signed the first contract community between the unions and the companies concesionarias. June 26 1947 minister Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso offered the raw petroleum of the bonuses directly in the international market. Of April of 1947 to November of 1948, the Executive signed the agreements to build refineries in Amuay, Cardón, Under Big, Port The Cruz and The Chaure. San Silvestre núm. 2 discovered the first field of the basin of Barinas (1.2.1948), while Curazaíto 2 passed the 5.000 m of depth for the first time (July 1948). November 12 1948 the president Galician Rómulo put the one executes you to the new tax law on the rent with which the called principle of the 50-50 was introduced, (fifty-fifty) that would reach the universal adoption in little time; to the 12 days, a military coup overthrew to Galician. The hired refineries began to enter in operation (Cardón, 1.2.1949); the exploratory activity was increased gradually, while the ruling meeting tried to finish with the political influences inside the unions of oil workers; for the first time  thought about in the country the unsuitability of the development of the Middle East in detriment of the local industry (June 1949); the positive result was the shipment from a mission of high level to the one  Gets up (September of 1949). 
During the period 1951-1958 they were almost discovered 150 new fields, 23 the year 1953, for what has been called the stage of gold of the exploration. July of 1952, 24 the Creole published the first public rate of the raw Venezuelans; during 1954, in the Shell the word " venezolanización " was coined;  settled down, February of 1955, 14 the Venezuelan Society of Geologists; and June of 1956, 29 you creó the Venezuelan Institute of the Petrochemical one. June of 1956, 16 the general Marcos Pérez Jiménez government opened the last cycle of grant of concessions, for more than 800.000 there is; the first gigantic discovery with the well Licks 1, it was still achieved before the date of closing of the operation (14.10.1957); at least the fourth part of all the resources of raw petroleum of the basin of Maracaibo surrendered to the new concessionaires; during the year 1957  was discovered more petroleum and more wells were completed (1.739) that in any other one. In July  graduated the first promotion of the School of Engineering of the University of the Zulia. The Creole completed the well Jump 11 on time as a small producer that the popular movement of January 23 1958 triumphed. For the provisional president's Edgar Sanabria ordinance, December 19 were increased to 66% the participation of the State in the utilities of the industry. 

President Rómulo Betancourt and their minister of Mines and Hidrocarburos Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo recaptured in February of 1959 the oil politics's implementation delineated during the command of the Revolutionary Meeting of 1945. The principle of not more concessions were restored; April 8 settled down the Coordinating Commission for the Conservation and the Trade of the Hydrocarbons; April 20, in Cairo, the secret consultations culminated with delegates of Arab countries and of the Iran; May 13,  was explained the Government from United States the Venezuelan position before the discriminatory treatment of the obligatory program of imports; in October, Antonio Martín Araujo assumed in Egypt the first oil embassy; when it finished the year 1959, the accumulated production of petroleum it surpassed the 2.000.000.000 m3. To the 3 and a half months of the year 1960, April 19, so that it coincided with a native festivity, the presidential ordinance 266 established the Venezuelan Corporation of the Petroleum; 3 and a half months before the end of the year, with the other 4 countries exporters bigger than the world, Venezuela was author of the international conference that creó the Organization of Countries Exporters of Petroleum (OPEC) for the unification of the oil politicians of the countries members; in the II Conference of the OPEC in Caracas, January of 1961, 21 were approved the statutes and the politics noticed regarding the prices of the petroleum the international market. June 29 1961 finished in Maracay the first meeting between the state companies of Latin America and July 3 the CVP it completed their first well successfully. The School of Engineering of Petroleum of the University of East opened up in Jusepín in October of 1961. With matter care the fiscal régime was examined in validity. For ordinance of November of 1964, 3 the CVP received the assignment of the third part of the domestic market of derived products. The company of services oil Mito Juan was constituted by means of public subscription November 26 1965; April of 1966, 1 engineer Luis Alcalá Sucre assumed the presidency of the Big Mene, first Venezuelan in occupying that position in a concesionaria; October of 1966, 4 the Technical Office of Hydrocarbons defined and it fixed the norms to estimate the proven reservations of raw petroleum. The reference prices for calculation of the tax on the payable rent for the oil companies remembered October of 1966, 6 as well as new tax rats and the transaction of the pending reclamos. To strengthen the position of Venezuela in their main markets, July 28 1967 were sanctioned the law it has more than enough special agreements related with the desulfuración of hydrocarbons. The first plant, in Cardón (Edo. Falcon),  entered in operation December 15 1969. The CVP became the biggest distribuidora of products in the internal market November 29 1968. During 1969,  defended the national position before the Committee of Work of the Cabinet it has more than enough Control of Imports of Petroleum, of United States. December of 1970, 17 the Congress promulgated a law that authorized the Executive the unilateral fixation of the values of export of the petroleum, that which will be made March 8 1971 for the first time. After several years of studies and debates, the CVP signed July of 1971 contracts of service 29 for exploratory risk, to advance substitute outlines of the concessions; however, when finishing the prospecting the year 1974,  had only been discovered a non commercial field of having condensed. September of 1972, 12 the CVP with the exploratory well 23 Miranda 2X achieved the first discovery in the continental platform of the Caribbean (basin of the Ensenada of The Candle). 
During 1973, as a result of defined actions of the OPEC, the prices of the raw petroleum tripled. The Latin American Organization of Energy (OLADE), proposed by Venezuela, it was constituted formally in Lima, November 2 1973. The world interest for the immediate exploitation of the deposits of raw petroleum of heavy and extra heavy specific weight and of natural bitumen in the south region of the basin of Maturín, designated oil strip and on the other hand, the imminence of concluding in few years the term of the duration of the concessions, caused mistrust, debates and analysis, in an incessant way; as  came closer the year 1983, the feeling of an immediate nationalization you generalized and  made urgent, while the opposition to the process on the part of the concesionarias became more closed and more militant;  conformed to this way an approach unit as for the convenience and necessity of declaring the strip national project of investigation and of proceeding to nationalize the oil industry, taking the State, of the concesionarias, the address and the control of the operations. The National Congress had approved July 30 1971 Bienes Affections' Law to Reversion in the Concessions of Hydrocarbons and August 26, the law that, through the CVP,  reserved to the State the industry of natural gas. Of particular importance to the development of the events was the presidential ordinance 382 of December of 1971, 17 that it established the obligatoriedad to the concesionarias of introducing to the Executive their annual programs of investment. December 20 1972 the Congress sanctioned the law that established a bottom dedicated to the investigation as regards hydrocarbons and technical personnel's formation for the industry of this substances. During 1973 it was constituted the Institute of Oil Investigations of the University of the Zulia and February of 1974, 7  settled the Council of Administration of the Institute of Oil Investigations and Petrochemicalses. January of 1974, 2 the Ministry of Mines and Hydrocarbons prepared that the Creole restored to the Nation, without compensation payment, the areas producers Mulattress and Jusepín. The reservation to the State of the industry and the trade of the hydrocarbons, by means of the cancellation of the right granted concessionaires, like advance to the reversion suited in 1943, was considered unavoidable, in such way that you preserves the operative continuity and dysfunctions were not caused to the development of the oil activities neither the vulnerable economy of the country. Before the clear political consent, March 22 1974 were noted the commission to study and to analyze the alternatives of the advanced reversion; as that foreseen, the group concluded its tasks December 23, giving president Carlos Andrés Pérez the corresponding report, in which intended the formulation of an integral energy politics, the organization of the oil administration for the national industry being based on a house main and filial operators, and the preliminary design of an organic law to reserve to the State the industry and the trade of the hydrocarbons. During the first semester of the year 1975 you proceeded to the discussion of this project, with certain modifications proposed by the Executive; the organic law received the one executes you presidential August 29; the following day, it was constituted Petroleums of Venezuela, company in charge of the planning, coordination and supervision of the national oil industry; October 29 the concesionarias accepted the compensation offers and December 31 were canceled all the concessions and a guarantee bottom was constituted to the State, at the time that the Ministry of the field determined the geographical areas of operation of each subsidiary company of Petroleums. 
In the place of the Sumac núm. 1, well discoverer of the field Big Mene in 1914, president Pérez proclaimed the reservation from the oil industry to the State January 1 1976; Petroleums assumed the functions characteristic of her indeed, when acquiring for their nominal value the entirety of the state companies that one to a they substituted to the concesionarias. January 2, according to that suited, Petroleums signed with the company transnational womb of each old concesionaria agreements of technical attendance and of purchase-sale of raw petroleum and products. In September of 1976, the directory of Petroleums approved the administrative coordination then among its 14 subsidiaries that would decrease first at 5, at 4 and finally to 3 operators (LAGOVEN, MARAVEN and CORPOVEN). In May of 1977, the incoveniencia of the secret agreements of technological support was denounced; in June, the national market became controlled by the subsidiaries of Petroleums; in October, they were trusted all the programs of the strip and in November, the Petrochemical one became another branch of Petroleums. The fall of the prices of the petroleum and the marketing difficulties, more the impossibility of completing the commitments of the foreign debt, they placed the country in situation economic critic. October of 1978, 12 LAGOVEN the perforation of the first exploratory well began in the Atlantic submarine platform; CORPOVEN renewed the search in the bay of The Candle the following month and MARAVEN it completed, in December, the rising for the technique of the lateral radar of the territory to the north of the parallel 6º N, and it began a program of 3 sterile wells in the Sad gulf. In May of 1979, LAGOVEN discovered a gigantic accumulation of natural gas with the well Patao núm. 1 in the basin of Margarita of the submerged Venezuelan continent of the platform; in September, MARAVEN achieved the first discovery of raw petroleum and natural gas in the basin of Cariaco, 30 km to the east of the island Turtle. To the expiration of the agreements of technological attendance December of 1979, 31 Petroleums and their branches achieved, for those that were renewed, more reasonable and more appropriate terms. The patterns of yield of the refineries of The Stick and Amuay were changed to allow the prosecution of more proportion of heavy raw petroleums, to diminish the volume of the residual products and to obtain more gasolines and distilled light. At the end of the first exploratory program of the platform of Margarita basin, the existence of a main gas county was determined; other discoveries of interest were achieved in the subcuenca from Columbus to the southeast of the island of Trinidad and in the basin of Cariaco. The investigation of the strip closed with the year 1983, being proven the existence of an immense field of raw petroleum of heavy and extra heavy specific weight, and natural bitumen, of unusual magnitude: the field Bands of the Orinoco. Nevertheless the difficulties of the international markets and the commitments inside the OPEC that you/they imposed complicated adjustments, you continued the operative normality and the progressivity of the action. April of 1982, 21 with the signature of a main contract and 18 supplementary agreements with the Veba Oel of Germany, Petroleums of Venezuela began the politics of internationalization of their activities. At the end of 1983, for the first time in 30 years, the operations of the petrochemical industry showed a positive financial balance. July of 1984, 13 the filial CORPOVEN discovered commercial deposits of raw petroleum of light specific weight in the subcuenca of it Hurries, 3 km to the N of the river Arauca. The first program of seismic three-dimensional it was completed in the basin of Maracaibo in 1984. Petroleums of Venezuela leased for 5 years the refinery of Curazao November 25 1985. The first acquisition of the national oil main house in United States was the purchase of half of the Citgo Petroleum, February 5 1986; days later, the 14, the filial operator LAGOVEN discovered in the basin of Maturín with the exploratory well The Furrial núm. 1 deep gigantic fields of raw petroleum of medium specific weight. For command of the National Executive, April of 1986 Petroleums 28 bought to the Corporation of Development of the Zulia and the Fund of Investments of Venezuela the company CARBOZULIA, to exploit the potent mantels of coal of the formation I Pass Devil in the half valley of the river Guanare, 70 km to the NO of Maracaibo. September of 1986, 15 Jaime Lusinchi's government suited the transaction with the previous concesionarias, for repairs formulated by the general contralor. The new combustible orimulsión, stable emulsion of the natural bitumen of the field Bands of the Orinoco in water, usable in it burns it direct for the electric generation, it began to be marketed worldwide in 1990. The Ministry of Energy and Mines requested of Petroleums of Venezuela September 21 1990 the reactivación of the marginal fields, by means of operative agreements with private companies, and July 18 1991 dictated the legal norms of the politics of industrialization of the hydrocarbons. The seismic rising of the area unexplored Oriental Swamp of the basin of Maturín finished in 1992. During 1994 and 1995, LAGOVEN and CORPOVEN they suited with oil of United States similar projects to develop the extra heavy raw petroleum of the field it Bands of the Orinoco. The CVP was reactivated July 14 1995 and January of 1996 it hired 8 blocks that were assigned him by the Executive, with a total surface of 1.500 there is, with 14 companies of Europe, United States and Venezuela, for the exploration to risk and eventual production under the outline of shared earnings. January 17 1996 the World Organization of the Trade, with headquarters in Geneva (Switzerland), it ruled in favor of Venezuela the demand filed against United States by discrimination to the import of gasolines. Petroleums of Venezuela are considered the second transnational oil company of the world. Venezuela has taken place, at December of 1995, 31 one of each 8 t of raw petroleum of the world, since the industry began 135 years ago. 

 


 

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